Problems and suggestions in RFID standardization

2022-09-23
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Problems and suggestions in RFID standardization 1. Electromechanical suggestions

rfid overview and standardization trend

1. RFID overview

rfid is the abbreviation of "radio frequency identification" in English. It means "radio frequency identification", which is a kind of non-contact automatic identification technology. So far, the most successful application case of automatic identification technology is the wide application of "barcode" technology in packaging, retail and logistics industries, which has improved the management level and production efficiency of enterprises in these fields. The production cost is reduced and the product quality is improved

as Wal Mart and metro, the two major global retailers, first proposed to use RFID technology in their retail management, this not a new technology has attracted more and more attention and even enthusiastic pursuit in the world. According to the research of Pira in the UK, RFID is one of the technologies that will have an important impact on the packaging, printing and paper production industries in the next few years. It is certain that with the breakthrough of technology and the reduction of cost, the "barcode" technology widely used in packaging, retail and logistics industry is and will be replaced by "RFID" technology. In today's information, digitalization and globalization, people's demand for flexible and convenient RFID technology that can carry a large amount of information is growing exponentially. Figure 1 shows the analysis and prediction of FS company on the global RFID application market (unit: US $billion). By 2009, the global RFID market will soar from US $2billion in 2003 to US $10billion

the international situation is the same, as is the domestic situation, which is the inevitable trend of economic globalization. There are many suppliers engaged in RFID R & D and system integration in China, such as punoma, shihuakai, etc. Many emerging high-tech companies are engaged in pioneering work in the application of RFID technology. Just like the shock and surprise brought to the world by the promotion and application of bar code technology, the popularity of RFID technology will have a far-reaching and lasting impact on human society than the former

when the RFID wave comes, the production and management efficiency of human society will be greatly improved, workers will be liberated, and more human and material resources will be concentrated on creating and improving various service fields needed by people's lives

2. RFID standardization trend

with the popularization of RFID technology, standardization is a necessary measure for it to be widely accepted by the market, and it is also a good opportunity for the development and internationalization of enterprises in various countries. At present, the main RFID standards include the European and American system (epcgloba1) and the Japanese system (uid), as well as the ISO series. Other standards are mostly self-made standards by countries or regions, such as South Korea, which adopts its own standards. It can be predicted that, like the formulation of "barcode" standard, RFID standard will form an internationally unified mainstream standard on the basis of national or regional standards of medical membrane materials such as blood purification membrane and separation membrane, gas selective transmission membrane, corneal contact lens, tissue adhesive and suture materials, and will be modified and compatible with the standards of major countries or regions. In addition, as RFID technology is an electronic technology, the formation process of its international standards is similar to that of mobile communication standards. The expanding application fields will give birth to mainstream standards based on different applications. With the continuous reduction of costs and the expansion of the market, international standards that will occupy an absolutely dominant position in a certain period of time will emerge. Although we hope that the international standard of RFID is rich in content, concise and clear, and highly operational. However, with the development of communication technology, RFID technology will inevitably learn from or transplant more and more achievements from the field of information technology. In this way, the unified international standards will focus more guiding definitions or rules on the system, protocol, interface and application level

in the field of RFID, although the RFID reader and tag technology have not been unified, and the volume label communication protocols developed by different manufacturers are also different. Countries, regions and major RFID suppliers and applications are accelerating the formulation process of their own standards, but the huge benefits and potential market demand brought by the application of RFID technology will promote the emergence of unified mainstream standards. Due to the characteristics of high efficiency, large capacity, flexibility and confidentiality of RFID technology, it can be predicted that RFID standard will not be as simple as "barcode" standard, and it will need to pay attention to and solve many more problems. At the same time, it is also much more complex

based on the experience of the application of modern information technology and the process of standardization, this paper mainly puts forward the author's views and suggestions on the three categories of problems (general problems, important problems, legal and moral problems) that RFID standardization needs to pay attention to and solve

general problems in RFID standardization

in the content of RFID standardization, the general problems to be solved and standardized are hardware or hardware related problems, including physical characteristics (electromagnetic characteristics, spectrum requirements and mechanical characteristics), test methods and requirements, hardware interface, transmission protocol (working mode, synchronization mode, coding and modulation mode, file format, character set selection, etc.), encryption and security Hardware expansion and other aspects. To be exact, the existing RFID standards, whether European and American systems or Japanese systems, or standards formulated by other regions or countries, are more about expressing the basic requirements of hardware and simple specifications of software. They are only preliminary considerations in terms of system balance, scalability, encryption and security. There is no perfect solution. They are more like replicas of "barcode" standards. Although RFID is also called "electronic barcode", we must clearly realize that it is more a technology of information collection and interaction. Its information carrier is an electronic media with great capacity, and its interaction mode is wireless data interaction. Its technical foundation is the whole informatics and communication. Therefore, its potential application ability and application field are extremely broad. The depth and breadth of its application will far exceed the degree that "bar code" technology can achieve. If these factors are not taken into account in RFID standardization, we will soon face the embarrassment of lagging behind and major modifications. At the same time, it will also cause confusion and losses to RFID suppliers and users, and even destroy the mutual trust and cooperation among the members of the RFID international unified standards alliance, which has not been easily established

1. RFID physical characteristics

in terms of RFID physical characteristics, different from most existing standards, the spectrum requirements that should be specified are a composite range rather than a single frequency point. This can increase the flexibility of the label and reduce its production cost. At the same time, the reader can work in the way of frequency scanning to improve the compatibility of frequency. In terms of electromagnetic intensity, the maximum and minimum electromagnetic intensity requirements of RFID for different purposes can be specified in a hierarchical manner. Treat it as a transmitter. RFID used as a retail industry and RFID used as an animal tracking application can use different frequencies and different electromagnetic intensities. The power requirements and transmission distance of active RFID are compatible with its application classification. In terms of mechanical characteristics, it requires the reliability of RFID under a certain range of temperature, humidity, photoelectric environment and radiation environment, the ability to resist bending, deformation and friction, and the performance to resist water, heat and mild acid and alkali, as well as the requirements to resist sudden mechanical extrusion and collision. These requirements are specific to different applications, focusing on adapting to their respective application environments, and leaving descriptive codes of hierarchical application requirements in the information structure

2. RFID test content

rfid test requirements can exist separately as an attachment to the standard or a section of the body. This part of content should be implemented according to the parameters of "necessary" and "optional requirements" corresponding to the classification mode. On the basis of hardware testing, all functions should be checked, with emphasis on interface parameters and transmission protocol. The interface parameters require the performance of the antenna according to the grading mode. The grading requirements are made for the matching characteristics of the receiving front end of the reader. In the interface parameters, the compatibility with the software interface should be important tested to ensure that the hardware of the reader can work on a variety of service software platforms. Of course, the requirements for the software are that it can operate normally on a variety of hardware platforms. The inspection of the transmission protocol focuses on the ability of error correction and anti-collision (the signals of multiple labels arrive at the receiving end at the same time, resulting in the inability to distinguish the information source requiring deformation units of mm, cm, inch), but it is tested while improving the thermal insulation performance of the glass. The processing of "collision" can be carried out by using the technology of scanning startup or correlation detection. It can be completed through a certain algorithm combined with the system specified in the standard, so as to improve the efficiency of recognition. In addition, for passive RFID, it is recommended to adopt the technology of simultaneous multi-channel reception and processing. For active RFID, it is recommended to adopt the technology of scanning reception and processing, or select the working mode of the reader according to the purpose of reading data

3. RFID transmission protocol

in the transmission protocol part, we should determine the hierarchical application system. When building the information structure, we can learn from the experience of "barcode". We can distinguish RFID country or region code, industry or commodity application category code, classification requirement code, error correction segment, reading and writing operation category and record, hierarchical data content, confidentiality measure structure, permission setting At the same time, standardize the information retransmission mode. A variety of operation behavior controls (write, overwrite, self destruct, restartable self destruct or lock, etc.) are compatible with the advanced standard version. They are used to help the reader carry out compatible processing. The file format should allow multiple formats to be processed by software. The character set should be the general information character set, which is the same as the character set used in the existing I T industry or computer operating system. The consideration of encryption and security is mainly from the software data encryption and decryption system and authority verification. In particular, the authority of batch rewriting is strictly reviewed. The original data should be retained in the main control system for a period of time. These requirements are determined by the software and the application provider through negotiation. The grading mode is compatible level by level from top to bottom. Different applications, different costs, different requirements, and different prices

hardware expansion mainly refers to the reader, which adopts plug-in card or modular integration to ensure that each functional module of the hardware can be replaced or upgraded according to different needs. It can even directly transmit data with the computer. It can be wireless (infrared or Bluetooth) connection. It can also be wired connection. (to be continued)

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